Hemorrhoids, also known as piles, are swollen veins in the anus and lower rectum, similar to varicose veins. Hemorrhoids can develop inside the rectum (internal hemorrhoids) or under the skin around the anus (external hemorrhoids).

Hemorrhoids are one of the most common causes of rectal bleeding and may be marked by pain or itching. If untreated, internal hemorrhoids can worsen, protruding from the anus.

Nearly three out of four adults will have hemorrhoids from time to time. Hemorrhoids have a number of causes, but often the cause is unknown.

The veins around your anus tend to stretch under pressure and may bulge or swell. Hemorrhoids can develop from increased pressure in the lower rectum due to:

  • straining during bowel movements
  • sitting for long periods of time on the toilet
  • chronic diarrhea or constipation
  • obesity
  • pregnancy, when your growing uterus presses on your veins
  • anal intercourse
  • a low-fiber diet
  • regular heavy lifting

Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids usually depend on the type of hemorrhoid.

External hemorroids

These are under the skin around your anus. Signs and symptoms might include:

  • Itching or irritation in your anal region
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Swelling around your anus
  • Bleeding

Internal hemorrhoids

Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the rectum. You usually can’t see or feel them, and they rarely cause discomfort. But straining or irritation when passing stool can cause:

  • Painless bleeding during bowel movements. You might notice small amounts of bright red blood on your toilet tissue or in the toilet.
  • Hemorrhoid to push through the anal opening (prolapsed or protruding hemorrhoid), resulting in pain and irritation.

Thrombosed hemorrhoids

If blood pools in external hemorrhoid and forms a clot (thrombus), it can result in:

    • Severe pain
    • Swelling
    • Inflammation
    • A hard lump near your anus

Your doctor might be able to see external hemorrhoids. Diagnosis of internal hemorrhoids might include an examination of your anal canal and rectum.

Your doctor will ask about your medical history and symptoms. They’ll probably need to do one or more of these examinations:

  • Digital rectal exam: Your doctor will put on gloves, apply lubrication, and insert a finger into your rectum to check the muscle tone and feel for tenderness, lumps, or other problems.
  • Visual inspection: Because internal hemorrhoids are often too soft to be felt during a rectal exam, your doctor might examine the lower portion of your colon and rectum to check for lumps, swelling, irritation, or rule out other conditions. He/she will use an anoscope, proctoscope, or sigmoidoscope.

Colonoscopy: If your signs and symptoms suggest you might have another digestive system disease, if you have risk factors for colorectal cancer or you are middle-aged and haven’t had a recent colonoscopy, your doctor might want to examine your entire colon using colonoscopy.


Treatment of haemorrhoids involves a change of diet to prevent constipation and avoid further irritation, the use of topical medication, and sometimes surgery. Depending on the symptoms and severity of the haemorrhoids several treatments are available.

F Care Systems developed a safe and effective, minimally invasive technique to treat internal haemorrhoids with little or no post-operative pain, and immediate return to normal daily activities.

The Rafaelo® procedure uses the well-established radiofrequency technology, to treat all grades of internal haemorrhoids.

The area around the haemorrhoid is anaesthetised to avoid any discomfort. Radiofrequency energy is then applied to the haemorrhoid, reducing the blood flow to it, causing it to shrink and eventually disappear. Its effect is to reduce the symptoms to a normal level and to remove haemorrhoids.
The Rafaelo® procedure is quick and generally carried out under local anaesthesia and/or in an outpatient setting, allowing patients to walk in and walk out.

  • Here are a few tips to prevent haemorrhoids:
    • Eat fiber to help food pass through your system easier.
    • Drink water to avoid hard stools and constipation and push less during bowel movements.
    • Exercise to keep your blood and your bowels moving.
    • Don’t sit on the toilet for long periods or strain during bowel movements. This puts more pressure on your veins.
    • Lose weight in case of obesity.

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